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1 year ago

Soil screening Soil organic carbon

In a 15N experiment with conventional N application rates (300 kg N ha−1 for each crop), Pan (2001) found losses of 30–50% of applied N in wheat–maize rotations of the NCP while 25–45% was accumulated in the 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (in SOM or as mineral N) and only 25% was taken up by crops.
In the peri-urban region of Beijing Municipality cropping systems have strongly diversified due to urbanization and agricultural intensification (e.g., Hou et al., 2012).

1 year ago

A xA m by xA m resolution DEM

The Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency BIBU 1361 computed as:equation(7)ENS=1−∑i=1nQi,s−Qi,m2∑i=1nQi,m−Q¯m2where, Qi,s is simulated quantity (flow or TSS), Qi,m is measured quantity and Q¯m is mean of the measured quantity.
For p-factor the 95 % prediction uncertainty (95PPU) is calculated at the 2.5% and 97.5% levels of the cumulative distribution of an output variable obtained through Latin hypercube sampling. The average distance d¯ between the upper and the lower 95PPU is dicots used to calculate the r-factor expressed as (Abbaspour, 2008):equation(8)r‐factor=d¯XσX.
Uncertainty is an inherent characteristic of hydrologic models. These uncertainties should be properly addressed and quantified for the models to be usable in decision making. In SUFI-2 a measure, p-factor is used to quantify the degree to which all uncertainties are accounted. The p-factor is the percentage of measured data bracketed by the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU) (Abbaspour, 2008).

1 year ago

Non linear concentration ndash discharge relationships have

A large amount of research has been conducted to improve our understanding of the timing and mechanisms responsible for the transport of aquatic pollutants in surface and sub-surface runoff from agricultural land, with investigations into the fluvial export of suspended BML-190 from small agricultural catchments enabling exploration of the processes responsible for its delivery (e.g., Glendell and Brazier, 2014, Steegen et al., 2000 and Thompson et al., 2013). Likewise, studies have sought to characterise the nature of P losses from headwater agricultural catchments (e.g., Haygarth et al., 2005b, Hodgkinson and Withers, 2007, Pionke et al., 1996, Soulsby et al., 2002 and Stutter et al., 2008). However, there is currently a dearth of continuous, high-temporal resolution hydro-chemical and suspended sediment monitoring datasets available for rivers draining sensitive headwater catchments. Such high-frequency datasets of discharge, suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorous (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) enable characterisation of the complex non-linear responses of the monitored determinands at sub-hourly timescales.

1 year ago

Supplementary data Fig xA Validation of

The spatial pattern of the O3 formed is controlled by the distribution of OH and NOx, which have much shorter lifetimes and can affect both the location of CH4 oxidation and the amount of O3 production per CH4 molecule oxidized (Fiore et al., 2008). Increases in atmospheric CH4 contribute to all regions relatively uniformly, averaging 1.5–1.9 ppb O3 since 1960, and this contributes about one third of the O3 increase seen over Europe (EU) and North America (NA) over this period (Wild et al., 2012).

1 year ago

This study provided baseline data of PFAA

This study provided baseline data of PFAA pollution in rivers of the PRD, sourthern China. PFBS, PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs detected in this BIO 1211 study. Higher levels of ∑ PFAAs were found in the water samples collected Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities, suggesting the existences of potential sources in this area. PCA model concluded that short-chain PFAAs (C ≤ 7) and long-chain PFAAs (C ≥ 8) had different sources in the surface water. Among the different PFAA homologues, the average log Koc values generally increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. The log Kd values for PFAAs with the same carbon chain length on sediment were lower than that on SPM. However, particle/water and sediment/water interactions are very complex and largely controlled by the organic carbon. Overall, these data could help improve understanding the fate of PFAAs and are essential for modeling behaviors of transportation and transformation for PFAAs in water environment.

1 year ago

Salmonella sp pathogen determination was performed by using the ISO

Salmonella sp. (pathogen) determination was performed by using the ISO 6579:2002/Amendment 1:2007 protocol. Briefly, after sample dilution (1:10) in BPW, the sample was incubated at 37 °C for 18 h. Then 100 μl of solution was plated on MSRV agar and incubated at 41.5 °C for 48 h. Salmonella sp. grows forming AZ5104 halo, which was then streaked onto XLD and BGA agars and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h.

1 year ago

In Europe the by products and

Tomato processing residues have been previously characterized from Rossini et al. (2013) by an energy perspective. Anaerobic GSK-LSD1 2HCl (AD) of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal slurry, food waste, food processing residues) have been recognized by several studies (Ward et al., 2008, Bacenetti et al., 2013, González-González et al., 2013, Lijó et al., 2014a, Lijó et al., 2014b and Ingrao et al., 2015) as a suitable and effective solution to produce renewable energy by means of a cogeneration systems (electricity — EE and thermal energy — TE). In Italy, thanks to the strong public incentives for electricity generation from biomass currently there are about 1150 AD plants (Negri et al., 2014a). Although most of these plants are fed with cereal silages (González-García et al., 2013, Lansche and Müller, 2012 and Bacenetti et al., 2014), after the revision of the subsidy framework the interest about small AD plants (electric power < 300 kW) fed with agricultural by-products and other wastes is increasing (Negri et al., 2014b).

1 year ago

In addition in order to obtain different particles sizes and

Because considerable amount suspension was adhered on the wall of chamber and lots of larger R547 were formed due to the lower rotating speed, leading to a low collection rate and poor morphology of misshapen particles. However, an obvious regularity was observed in Fig. 6(a) when it was higher than 8000 r/min. With increasing the atomizer speed, the mean size obviously decreased and it was less sensitivity for dispersant content gradually.

1 year ago

State space models with a

The upper figures show the relative difference when considering the costs as obtained directly from the MO. The lower part of the figure contains the same results, but shows the costs after re-evaluation with the unit commitment model. The box plot shows four quartiles in the data, with the middle line being the median of the values. . (a) Total operational system cost, as obtained from the MO (TCMO), compared to the total operational cost obtained with the IM (TCIM); (b) Total cost for building owners, as obtained from the resolution MO (ECMO), compared to the corresponding cost obtained with the IM (ECIM); (c) Total operational system cost, re-evaluated with the UC & ED, considering the demand from the electric heating systems as obtained from the MO (TCMOR), comparedto the total operational cost obtained directly with the IM (TCIMR); (d) Total cost for building owners, re-evaluated with the UC & ED, considering the demand from the electric heating systems as obtained from the MO (ECMOR), compared to the corresponding operational cost 'AZD8931' obtained directly with the IM (ECIMR).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

Fig a shows cyclic voltammograms of

3.3. Electrochemical characterization of MG/Co4(PW9)2 n films
The cyclic voltammograms for a single MG/Co4(PW9)2 bilayer obtained at different scan rates in Ibuprofen 4.0 CH3COOH/CH3COONa, are shown in Fig. 4. Methyl green is not electroactive in the potential range studied so, the electrochemical responses are attributed to the immobilized Co4(PW9)2 and correspond to W-centred reduction processes (WVI → WV) with E1/2 (1) = −0.658 and E1/2 (2) = −0.843 vs. Ag/AgCl, scan rate 0.050 V s−1. At pH 4.0 CH3COOH/CH3COONa buffer solution, the free POM (Figure S3, SI) revealed one well defined W-centred reduction process with E1/2 (2) = −0.820 V vs Ag/AgCl, which is similar to the corresponding process in the immobilized Co4(PW9)2; the reduction process at less negative potential, that is observed in the immobilized POM at E1/2 (1) = −0.658, is not well defined in the free POM.
Fig. 4. Cyclic voltammograms of MG/Co4(PW9)2 bilayer in pH 4.0 CH3COOH/CH3COONa at different scan rates: 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.12 and 0.15 V s−1 (a); Plots of log ip vs. log ν (b).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide